The light sensitive cells within the retina that provide sharp vision, enable fine detail sight and and help us see color are located in the macula. When the cells of the macula become damaged from macular degeneration we loose our central vision and objects become blurred or distorted. Although not painful, its debilitating effects can make driving, reading, and can progress to severe vision loss.
This occurs when tissue of the macula is pulled away by the jelly like substance in the eye (vitreous). In some people the vitreous is firmly attached to the retina and especially around the macula. This vitreous tends to shrink over time and may cause a pulling effect on the macula and cause some of its tissue to be pulled away with the vitreous. Sometimes this tissue self repairs and other times surgical intervention is needed.
This is the most common eye disease from diabetes. It affects almost 80% of people who have had diabetes for 10 years or more. High blood sugar levels erode the inner linings of blood vessels and cause leakage of blood into the retina. In the early stages there may be only small areas of blood spots. In advanced cases, new blood vessels take over the retina while the macula and lens of the eye may become swollen as well. These patients tend to lose much vision. Keeping sugar levels low through diet and medications, watching blood pressure and cholesterol, and getting regular eye dilations are a must for diabetic patients to avoid surgery or severe loss of vision.
Retinitis Pigmentosa is characterized by a group of hereditary, progressive, and degenerative diseases of the retina. They are usually marked by problems with night vision, peripheral vision, and can progress to blindness. RP affects the retina by degenerating the of the rods in the eyes which help with night vision. It also start in the mid part of the retina and progresses inward and outward to also affect the cones in the eyes later in the disease which are responsible for daylight sight and color.